PASS Documentation

Use the links below to load individual chapters from the PASS statistical software training documentation in PDF format. The chapters correspond to the procedures available in PASS. Each chapter generally has an introduction to the topic, technical details including power and sample size calculation details, explanations for the procedure options, examples, and procedure validation examples. Each of these chapters is also available through the PASS help system when running the software.

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Quick Start

Introduction

Bayesian Approaches

Cluster-Randomized

Two Means

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Mixed Models (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Mixed Models (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

GEE

Multiple Means

Mixed Models (Interaction in a 2×2 Design)

Mixed Models (Slope-Interaction in a 2×2 Design)

GEE Tests for Multiple Groups

Two Proportions

Test (Inequality)

Test (Non-Zero Null)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Mixed Models (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Mixed Models (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

GEE

Multiple Proportions

Rates and Counts

Survival

Stepped-Wedge

Mixed Models

Means

Proportions

GEE

Means

Proportions

Rates and Counts

Conditional Power

Means

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Proportions

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Survival

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Confidence Intervals

Correlation

Means

Percentiles

Proportions

Quality Control

Reference Intervals

Regression

ROC

Sensitivity and Specificity

Standard Deviation

Survival

Variances

Correlation

Correlation

Test (Inequality)

Confidence Interval

Coefficient (Cronbach’s) Alpha

Intraclass Correlation

Kappa Rater Agreement

Lin’s Concordance Correlation

Design of Experiments

Randomization Lists

Experimental Design

Equivalence

Means

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Two Means (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Higher-Order) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Proportions

One Proportion

Two Correlated (Paired) Proportions

Two Independent Proportions

Two Proportions (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Rates and Counts

Survival

Variances

GEE

Means

Proportions

Rates and Counts

Group-Sequential

Means

Proportions

Survival

Means

One Mean

T-Test (Inequality)

Z-Test (Inequality)

Nonparametric

Non-Normal Data

Confidence Interval

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Multiple Testing

Conditional Power

Paired Means

T-Test (Inequality)

Z-Test (Inequality)

Nonparametric

Confidence Interval

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Cluster-Randomized

Multiple Testing

Conditional Power

Two Independent Means

T-Test (Inequality)

Z-Test (Inequality)

Nonparametric

Ratio Test

Non-Normal Data

Confidence Interval

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Multicenter-Randomized

Repeated Measures

Group-Sequential

Multiple Testing

Conditional Power

Pilot Studies

Two Means (Cluster-Randomized Designs)

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Mixed Models (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Mixed Models (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

GEE

Multiple Means (Cluster-Randomized Designs)

Mixed Models (Interaction in a 2×2 Design)

Mixed Models (Slope-Interaction in a 2×2 Design)

GEE Tests for Multiple Groups

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Conditional Power

Cross-Over (Higher-Order) Design

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

One-Way Designs (ANOVA)

ANOVA F-Test

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Nonparametric

Multiple Comparisons

Non-Normal Data

GEE

Multi-Factor Designs (ANOVA)

Multiple Comparisons

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Repeated Measures

Repeated Measures

Cross-Over Designs

Mixed Models

GEE

Mixed Models

General

Two Means (Multicenter Randomized Design)

Two Means (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Two Means (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

2×2 Factorial (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

2×2 Factorial (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

Slope Difference (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Slope Difference (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

GEE

Multivariate Means

Nonparametric

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Single-Factor

Multiple Comparisons

Tools

Method Comparison

Microarray

Mixed Models

Means

General

Two Means (Multicenter Randomized Design)

Two Means (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Two Means (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

2×2 Factorial (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

2×2 Factorial (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

Slope Difference (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Slope Difference (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

Proportions

Two Proportions (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Two Proportions (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

Non-Inferiority

Means

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Two Means (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Higher-Order) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Group-Sequential

Conditional Power

Proportions

One Proportion

Two Correlated (Paired) Proportions

Two Independent Proportions

Two Proportions (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Group-Sequential

Conditional Power

Rates and Counts

Survival

Variances

Nonparametric

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Single-Factor

Multiple Comparisons

Correlation

Variances

Reference Intervals

Tolerance Intervals

Normality

Pilot Studies

Proportions

One Proportion

Test (Inequality)

Confidence Interval

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Group-Sequential

Rare Events

Post-Marketing Surveillance

Conditional Power

Two Correlated (Paired) Proportions

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Equivalence

Two Independent Proportions

Test (Inequality)

Test (Non-Zero Null)

Confidence Interval

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Repeated Measures

Stratified

Group-Sequential

Conditional Power

Two Proportions (Cluster-Randomized Designs)

Test (Inequality)

Test (Non-Zero Null)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Mixed Models (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Mixed Models (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

GEE

Multiple Proportions (Cluster-Randomized Designs)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Contingency Table (Chi-Square Tests)

Repeated Measures

GEE

Mixed Models

Two Proportions (2-Level Hierarchical Design)

Two Proportions (3-Level Hierarchical Design)

Multiple Comparisons

Stratified

Trend

Ordered Categorical Data

Logistic Regression

Binary X (Wald Test)

Binary X (Confidence Interval)

Continuous X’s (Wald Test)

Conditional Logistic Regression

GEE Logistic Regression

Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression

Mediation Analysis

Kappa Rater Agreement

Sensitivity and Specificity

Tools

Quality Control

Rates and Counts

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Cluster-Randomized Designs

Cross-Over (2×2) Designs

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

GEE

Poisson Regression

Post-Marketing Surveillance

Poisson Rates

Negative Binomal Rates

Regression

Simple Linear Regression

Simple Linear Regression

Difference

Confidence Interval

Multiple Regression

Multiple Regression

Effect Size

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Mediation Analysis

Cox Regression

Cox Regression

Mediation Analysis

Poisson Regression

Poisson Regression

GEE Poisson Regression

Mediation Analysis

Logistic Regression

Binary X (Wald Test)

Binary X (Confidence Interval)

Continuous X’s (Wald Test)

Conditional Logistic Regression

GEE Logistic Regression

Mixed-Effects Logistic Regression

Mediation Analysis

Mediation Analysis

Probit Analysis

Michaelis-Menten Parameters

Mendelian Randomization

Reference Intervals

ROC

Simulation

Data Simulator

Correlation

Means

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Many Means (ANOVA)

Group-Sequential

Normality Tests

Proportions

Quality Control

Survival

Variances

Superiority by a Margin

Means

One Mean

Paired Means

Two Independent Means

Two Means (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Higher-Order) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Conditional Power

Proportions

One Proportion

Two Independent Proportions

Two Proportions (Cluster-Randomized)

Cross-Over (2×2) Design

Cross-Over (Williams) Design

Group-Sequential

Conditional Power

Rates and Counts

Survival

Variances

Survival

One Survival Curve

Two Survival Curves

Test (Inequality)

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Group-Sequential

Competing Risks

Cluster-Randomized

Conditional Power

Cox Regression

Exponential Means

Confidence Intervals

Probit Analysis

Legacy Procedures

Tools

Tolerance Intervals

Variances

One Standard Deviation

One Variance

Two Variances

Many Variances

Within-Subject Variances

Parallel Design (Ratio of Two Variances)

Parallel Design (Difference of Coefficients of Variation)

2×2M Replicated Cross-Over Design (Ratio of Two Variances)

Between-Subject Variances

Parallel Replicated Design

2×2M Replicated Cross-Over Design

Total Variances

Parallel Design

Parallel Replicated Design

2×2 Cross-Over Design

2×2M Replicated Cross-Over Design

Coefficients of Variation

Non-Inferiority

Superiority by a Margin

Equivalence

Tools

Plots

References

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